West was a good direction – it led to Prag, Vienna, Berlin andcivilization. Therefore the street leading in this direction was called Lembergerstrasse. And it led , naturally, to the North. This was the main street of Czernowitz until the railway.
After that it became Bahnhofstrasse for the Central Station and now it is Gagarina leading into outer space. A T34 tank stands there asa reminder. East was a bad direction – it led to Ukraina and Russia and Asia. All the things bad came from there: The Russians, the Slavs the Huns andTurks. Also the harsh winters. The street in this direction was the Russischegasse which went South-East, following the Prut river leading into Valachia.
To come to Russia you had to cross the Prut at some point fording the river . Later there were bridges at Novoselitza , Lipcani and more. Crossing these you would come to Russia safely if they didn’t mug you on your way.
The Rumanians changed it Strada Romana – Roman or Rumanian street. On the West were the mountains and no major route led through this Hutzul country. The Carpathians climbing to 1000 m. had no easy passes , rivers came down the mountain and at night the wolves and vampirs.
To the South there were two main routes: the Siebenburgerstrasse and theKutschumarerstasse. At the fork stood the Kriegersdenkmal, a memorial for the braveAustrian warriors. Kutschumarerstrasse took the name from an insignificant shtetl not fardown the road. Later it joined the Siebenburgerstrasse, a german name of Transylvania.
Nothing left for Rumania where these roads ultimately led. No Moldova road, no Suceava road, no Siret road. To reach the destination contained in its name, you had to turn West at Suceava crossing the Carpathians at the Borgo pass – to Bistritz. Then you reached Siebenburgen, land of the seven castles (or towns) . Well, this was Habsburg land and therefore the name. The Rumanians changed Kutschumarerstrasse to Bulevardul Regele Carol 2 but Siebenburgerstrasse stayed Bul. Transylvania which is Siebenburgen.
Frederik Grinberg, son of Isac Iacob and Rachel Lea Grünberg, was born as Frederic Grünberg in Czernowitz on 22.02.1938. Currently he is living, together with his wife, Liubov Medzhybovskaja-Grinberg, in modest circumstances in Germany. I’ve been visiting this couple, both of them doctors, several times and released an article (in German) on this meetings:
I’ve taken notice of his biography by the article “Mein Leben im Ghetto und auf dem okkupierten Territorium”, released by the Project Group Migration – History from Mülheim an der Ruhr. Beside the different documents from WW2 and the original Star of David from the Czernowitz Ghetto, which I’ve photographed (see the above mentioned post), there were two impressive pictures, that – thanks to Peter, Eli, Irene and Mimi – we could identify as pictures from the years 1920 and 1938 of the J.N.A.V. Zephirah.
Click on the pictures to enlarge!
1938, row by row, from left to right: Prof. Baruch Schuller, Adv. Iosef Brender, Hans Blutstein, Dr. Ad. Kliegler, Mag. M. Geller, Dr. Ad. Ziller, Adv. L. Seidner, S. Weisselberger, Dr. Iak. Krell, Adv. Ch. Saller, Prof. I. Grünberg, Ing. D. Kronenfeld, S. Picker, Adv. Noe Lehrer, M. Schwarzkopf, Adv. I. Kirmayer, Max Reinstein, Prof. B. Eisenthal, Dr. Srul Osterer, Dr. Fr. Nasspreis, Bernh. Scherzer, Dr. Adele Fleischer, Salo Woraczek, Dr. L. Brenner, Osn. Osterer, Willy Kliegler, Eva Schieber Fiedler, Dr. Abr. Kaswan, Dr. Saul Klier, Isak Fernhof, L. Eifermann, Dr. Ulrich Schächter, Iosef Bickel, Dr. Hersch Lecker, Dr. Meinh. Roth, Dr. Paul Lessing, Adolf Feldmann, Adv. M. Schapira, Dr. L. Mader, Dr. Josef Thau, Dr. M. Wiesenthal, Dr. B. Kasvan, Dr. Bernh. Kahane, Sim. Rosenrauch, N. Linker, M. Weissmann, S. Habermann, Mend. Zucker, Adv. M. Abramovici, Calm. Katz, Ing. Isr. Stenzler, Dr. Fritz Wagschal, Ios. Kinsbrunner, Dr. Wilh. Stecher, Dr. Iacob Iekeles, Rudolf Katz, Dr. Iacob Geller, Dr. Bernh. Stecher, Dr. Leonh. Eckstein, Prof. Isr. Schleyer, Prof. Dav. Lesczer, Leo Wiener, Samuel Stieber, Dr. Benj. Lessner, Dr. Ios. Diwer, Dr. Sal. Harnik, Dr. Salo Krässel, Dr. Norbert Kiwe, Dr. Moriz Zalman, Karl Metsch, Dr. Samuel Hammer, Chaim Osterer, Dr. Emanul Wagner, Adv. Aron Hechtlinger, Dr. M. Diamant, Dr. Moses Bardich, Prof. Dr. S. Hornstein, Dr. Mar. Sommer, Dr. Ios. Kaufmann, Prof. M. Herbst, Prof. Teod. Kern, Dr. Isid. Kottlar, Dr. Mark. Krämer [Dr. Markus Kramer], Dr. Karl Hasko, Dr. S. Brettschneider, Dr. Wolf Herzberg, Dr. Iosef Sperber, Dr. Saul Geiger, Dr. Ad. Niederhofer, Dr. Herm. Ebner, Dr. Mos. Glaubach, Dr. Ios. Miseles, Dr. Mordko Rotfeld, Iakob Czaczkes, Mos. Seidmann, Adv. Iak. Hasenfratz, Iosef Kula, Adv. Israel Goldhagen, Abrah. Friedmann, Adv. Herm. Lifsches, Dr. Heinr. Kreisel, Dr. Wolf Riznik, Adv. Simon Stein, Osico Wolfshaut, Adv. Herm. Spasser, Adv. Laz. Fränkel, Adv. Er. Kupferberg, Adv. Izio Halpern, Adv. M. Hammer, Adv. Max Halpern, Mag. Ak. Finkental
I would be pleased to receive your comments, suggestions and questions! Edgar Hauster (firstname.lastname@example.org)