USHMM (Courtesy of Martha Guttmann Blum): Group portrait of members of the Freemasons Lodge of Chernovtsy, Bukovina, approximately 75 percent of whom were Jewish. The members were mainly intellectuals and leaders in business and local government. Among those pictured are Dr. Max Ennis (top row, third from the left); pharmacist, Dr. Abraham Guttman (top row, far right); an official in the revenue service, Dr. Max Gottfried (second row from the top, sixth from the left); and the judge, Dr. Jacob Rubel (third row from the top, far left). Chernovtsy, Romania, 1920 – 1925.
USHMM (Courtesy of Lotte Gottfried Hirsch): Members of the mostly Jewish Masonic lodge in Czernowitz celebrate the 70th birthday of Dr. Isidor Gold (center). Women attended lodge meetings on special occasions such as this one. Chernovtsy, Romania, August 1937.