On 05/23/1961 Perla Mark, the wife of Dr. Abraham Jakob Mark, testified in Jerusalem at the Adolf Eichmann Trial. Session 48 begins with the testimony from Perla Mark who describes the burning of the main synagogue in Czernowitz and the murder of Jews including her husband, the town’s chief rabbi. The testimony from Theodor Löwenstein follows. Löwenstein describes the physical measures against the Jews in Romania including the pogroms in Jassy, Bessarabia, and Bukovina. Löwenstein gives an account of the deportations from Czernowitz to the Transnistria and Bogdanovka camps. He also gives an estimate of the number of Romanian Jews that were exterminated.
Ervin [Erwin] Adler, Ioan Blidner, Leopold Bremer [Brenner], Lazar [Lezer] Buxbaum, Maier Drucher, Isidor Furmann, Natan [Nathan] Ghetzler [Getzler], Iosif Goldstein, Solomon Heier, Suchar Herschman, Martin I. Herzberg [Hertzberg], Iuda Hollinger [Holinger], Guido Hornstein, Iosif Iahr, Julius Kessler, Berl Korn, Karol [Carl] Korn, Max Kremer, Carol [Karl] Leindenbaum [Lindenbaum], Isac Likvornic, Comrat [Iacob Conrad] Mardler [Merdler], Pincas Napler, David Nier, Ossi [Ossy] Orest Noe, Iacob Rauch, Arthur Rosemblat [Rosenblatt], Iulius Rotlender, Izu Salzberger, Ludovic [Ludwig] Samler, Leizer [Leiser] Schachter [Schächter], Paul Pincas Schapira, Zigard Scherf, Adolf Schifter, Simion [Simon] Schlosser, Wilhelm Schvartz, Carol Schwartz Skapf [Schwartzkopf], Alfred Seidner, Wilhem [Wilhelm] Solomon, Natan Teitler, Isac Vikman, Herman Walter, Hema [Herman] Wasz Kutzer [Waszkautzer], Baruch Wenistock [Weinstock], Adolf Winter, Bernhard Teodor Zulflucht [Zuflucht].
Drawings dedicated by Arnold and Anna Daghani to Erich Dubowy
These two letters – Click here for the German transcription! – and the drawings above were sent by Arnold and Anna Daghani to Erich Dubowy between June and September 1976. They are reproduced by special courtesy of Erich’s son Daniel Dubowy from Canada. Concerning the relationship between Arnold Daghani and Erich Dubowy, we learn from Daniel: “…they knew each other from Czernowitz, (they were of the same age) but surely from Bucharest. In the early fifties in Bucharest there were quite a few Czernowitzer artists who socialized and met regularly, and my father who was an architect but also a decent piano player, must have intermingled with them. […] They may not have been close friends but acquainted enough to be in some constant correspondence before and after.” Even more, one of the reasons these letters make compelling reading is their historical relevance, far beyond just personal considerations.
Arnold Daghani shines a light on his artistic self-conception as well as on his relationship to the Romanian post WW2 artist community, such as to the Czernowitzer poet Alfred Kittner, the Romanian art reviewer Eugen Schileru, the Armenian businessman and art collector Krikor H. Zambaccian, the diplomat and art critic Oscar Walter Cisek, who authored short stories, novels, poems and essays in both German and Romanian. In addition we discover at the bottom of these letters a catalogue of Daghani’s works, which apparently were still in his possession before finally emigrating to England and settling in Hove, near Brighton, one year later in 1977. Daghani died in 1985, a deeply frustrated man, and his work is now held at Centre for German-Jewish Studies at the University of Sussex.
Dr Deborah Schultz comes straight to the point stating in her article “Pictorial Narrative, History and Memory in the Work of Arnold Daghani” as follows: “His frustrations were intensified by the lack of public interest in the camps in Ukraine, with all the attention focused on better-known camps such as Auschwitz, and he strongly believed that his account had to be heard. For Daghani writing and image making may have been the means of locating himself and of finding his way.” You will better comprehend this by reading the first paragraph of Daghani’s second letter: “As an ‘homage’, I received from the public prosecutors the entire investigation procedure file, since, according to the chief prosecutor [Fritz Bauer], it’s solely due to me, that they gained knowledge of the atrocities committed on the other side of the Bug River.” But it’s finally G. H. Bennett, Associate Professor in History at the University of Plymouth, who – by his article “The Limits of West German Justice in the 1960s: The Post-War Investigation of Walter Gieseke” and his book “The Nazi, the Painter and the Forgotten Story of the SS Road” – is enlightening the historical dimension for us.
Well, the “Nazi” was Walter Gieseke, Oberstleutnant of the Gendarmerie and SS, the “Painter” was Arnold Daghani and the DG IV (Durchgangsstraße IV) was the “SS Road”, the road building project across the Ukraine which resulted in the murder of substantial numbers of Jewish forced labourers, among those many from Bukovina.
At my previous posting “The Stone Quarry on the Bug River at 8 Miles from N 48°40′ E 29°15′” you’ll find additional reports on the fate of the Jewish forced labourers including excerpts from Andrej Angrick’s article “Forced Labor along the ‘Straße der SS'” and Gerhard (Bobby) Schreiber’s memoirs “A Tale of Survival”. After getting numerous answers to our initial question, the final question concerns the moral condemnation and criminal conviction of the war criminals, but read by yourself G. H. Bennett’s conclusion:
“Gieseke was never brought to trial and Daghani would eventually conclude that the West German investigations into the crimes committed along DGIV were ‘merely a farce, a meaningless gesture’. […] The investigation of Walter Gieseke highlights the problems in the 1950s and 1960s of securing justice for crimes committed during the war. The processes of investigating and prosecuting of German war criminals in the context of West German justice in the 1950s and 1960s were not likely to result in a conviction. Gieseke’s defensive strategies maximized the problems facing investigators which resulted from the set of legal, political, social and investigative contexts that made a trial difficult and, in the eyes of many West Germans, unwanted and unwarranted. […] In the case of Walter Gieseke can be glimpsed many of thecomplexiti es that protected the guilty men and women of post-war Germany. Moreover, study of this case hopefully demonstrates the need to discount concerns about ‘practitioners’ trespassing onto the territory of historians. In studying post-war German justice, and indeed most aspects of legal history, there is ample scope for practitioners and historians to pool their skills and approaches to the mutual benefit of truly interdisciplinary scholarship.There is much to be learned from each other and little to be feared.
“SS film links officer with war crimes” by BBC
“Lost film unearthed in Devon church…” by Daily Mail
“Arnold Daghani. Who is he?” by Miha Ahronovitz
“The Art of Arnold Daghani” by The Art of Polemics