Holocaust survivors who voluntarily worked in a ghetto located in a territory occupied by or integrated into the German Reich may apply for two types of compensation payment: The Ghetto pension pursuant to ZRBG (German Social Security Ghetto Pension) and the Payment to victims of persecution in recognition of work in a ghetto. Please be aware that as of July 18, 2014, substantial changes to the Ghetto pension pursuant to ZRBG have been signed into law which are described below.
1. Ghetto pension pursuant to ZRBG (Law Regulating the Conditions for Pension Payments on the Basis of Employment in a Ghetto)
The articles “Ghetto: Financial Compensation for voluntary Labor in a Ghetto” by the German Missions in the United States and “German Social Security Ghetto Pension – ZRBG” by the Claims Conference provide additional information.
Gali Tibon is the founder and CEO of the Institute for excellence in the Humanities and the head of the educational board of the ‘Beit Lohamei Haghetaot’ Ghetto Fighters’ House Museum. From 2014–2015 she was a Postdoctoral Fellow, Sawyer Seminar Postdoctoral Fellowship, at Carnegie Mellon University, Department of History. Her Ph.D. dissertation: ‘The Jewish Leadership of the South Bukovina Communities in the Ghettos in the Mogilev Region in Transnistria, and its Dealings with the Romanian Regime (1941–1944)’ was completed at Tel Aviv University. She has completed an annotated edit of a diary from the Shargorod Ghetto in Transnistria. Tibon is a former high school principal in Bat – Yam and Ma’alot – Tarshicha and won the education prize of The ORT schools net for an outstanding school and its principal, lectures for principals, teachers and administrators from all sectors of Israeli society.
Gali Tibon is among the alumni of the “The Zvi Yavetz School of Historical Studies”. The School of Historical Studies is the center for academic activity in all fields of historical research at Tel Aviv University, and a leading institution for research in Israel and abroad.
ibidem: From summer 1941 onwards, Romania actively pursued at its own initiative the mass killing of Jews in the territories it controlled. 1941 saw 13,000 Jewish residents of the Romanian city of Iai killed, the extermination of thousands of Jews in Northern Bukovina and Bessarabia by Romanian armed forces and local people, large-scale deportations of Jews to the camps and ghettos of Transnistria, and massacres in and around Odessa. Overall, more than 300,000 Jews of Romanian and Soviet or Ukrainian origin were murdered in Romanian- controlled territories during the Second World War. In this volume, a number of renowned experts shed light on the events, the contexts, and the aftermath of this under-researched and lesser-known dimension of the Holocaust. 75 years on, this book gives much-needed impetus to research on the Holocaust in Romania and Romanian-controlled territories [Table of Contents].
Ruth Films, Jerusalem: “On June 22, 1941 – The German and Romanian armies attack the USSR on the southern part of the front. The Romanians aimed to return to the Dniester River and regain control of Bessarabia and North Bukovina which were taken from them in the summer of 1940 by the Soviets. In late August 1941 the Germans grant the Romanian government the region on the east bank of the Dniester River, or as it is known in Romanian – Nistru. Hitler names this area – Transnistria. The film “Beyond the Nistru” depicts some of the Holocaust events that took place during the first year of the greatest patriotic war in Romanian occupied Soviet Union territories. The film enrolls the story of the suffering and death of hundreds of thousands of Jews – victims of the Holocaust perpetrated by the Romanians.”
Rolle einiger Frauen bei der Rettung von Juden in Rumanien 1941-1945
Only a few historians in Romania who did research on the protectors of Jews, highlighted those protectors who were being honored in Yad Vashem. Especially the role of two women became somewhat better known. Viorica Agarici of the Romanian Red Cross got involved in the process of saving several Jews in 1941. The other woman who protested in 1942, when the Germans announced that Jews from Romania were to be deported to the camp Bełżec, was the mother of a young king Mihai called Elena.
To this date, no research has been conducted on the Romanian and Jewish women who got involved in the saving of over 5.000 orphaned children from the Romanian occupation territory Transnistria. Some publications informed about the autonomous Help-Commission at the Jewish Center. The article shows how a group of Jewish women collected garments and medication for the deported Jews from Romania in the camps of Transnistria. They closely cooperated with some Romanian women who distributed these goods through the channels of the Romanian Red Cross. After a long struggle in the spring of 1944, the first orphaned children were repatriated to Romania and were later brought to Palestine by ship in 1944/1945.
Several cemeteries in Israel include memorials to the holocaust often related to individual towns or regions of Europe. A number of years ago, I visited such a memorial to the Jewish community of Radautz, Bukovina.
Harry Bolner visited two other memorials in the Haifa Cemetery, shown here (Dorohoi-Radautz-Transnistria Memorial – photo supplied by Harry Bolner via Merle Kastner):
Nearby, one can also find a memorial to the Pogrom in Iasi:
Thank you to Harry Bolner for taking the two photos above and sharing them with us.
Merle Kastner has done extensive work documenting burials in the Jewish Cemeteries of Montreal. A memorial to the holocaust in Bukovina can be found there at the Baron de Hirsch Cemetery (photo courtesy of Merle Kastner):
Edgar Hilsenrath: “The city of Heidelberg’s 2016 Hilde Domin Prize for Literature in Exile has been awarded to German-Jewish writer Edgar Hilsenrath (born 1926). The accolade is awarded every three years to writers who live in exile in Germany, or who have been affected by the issue as descendants of exiles, who tackle the theme of exile in their literary work and who publish in German. In granting the award, the jury stated, ‘In Edgar Hilsenrath, we are honouring a writer whose life’s work has been to communicate the experience of exile through original and daring literature. His novels, which are driven by bleak, dark powers of imagination, are attempts to find ways to speak of the horrific acts humans commit against each other through various forms of the grotesque. His stories are best symbolised as laughter that gets caught in your throat – somewhere between cynicism, sorrow and assertiveness.’”
Marion Tauschwitz: I had the chance and pleasure to talk to him and to give him my biography on Selma Merbaum, he was very interested in. He and Selma could have met at Moghilew-Podolks where Selma stayed for a short while before being deported to cariera de piatra.