Category Archives: History

Jewish Refugees in Shanghai (1938 – 1947)

The Shanghai Jewish Refugees Museum unveiled a memorial wall in 2014 listing the names of 13,732 Jews who found a haven in the Chinese city during World War II.

Sinosphere, the Blog of The New York Times, wrote on the dedication ceremony: “In the 1930s and 40s, thousands of Jews escaping Nazi Germany arrived in Shanghai, a place they could enter without a visa. After the Évian Conference of 1938, when the major powers shut their doors to nearly all Jewish immigrants, the city remained one of the few available places of refuge. By the beginning of World War II, more European Jews had fled to Shanghai than any other city in the world. The memorial consists of a 111-foot-long copper wall etched with the names and featuring a sculpture of six allegorical figures representing faith, suffering, love, determination, light and hope, designed by the Chinese artist He Ning. Chen Jian, the museum’s director, said the names on the memorial were compiled with the help of former Jewish refugees in Shanghai, as well as Chinese and foreign scholars, according to China Daily. Many of the names were taken from a list found in the German book ‘Exil Shanghai: 1938-1947,’ co-authored by Sonja Mühlberger, 75, who was herself born in Shanghai to refugee parents in the 1930s and has been involved in the memorial project.

The list in her book was first compiled during the war by three teenage Jewish girls hired by Japanese military officers to undertake an informal census. Most of the Jewish population then was relegated by the Japanese to an overcrowded district called Hongkou, a ‘designated area for stateless refugees.’ In a museum press release, Ms. Mühlberger comments, ‘My parents’ experiences in Shanghai were certainly not the easiest, but if they had not been exiled there, I wouldn’t even be alive today, let alone have the chance to tell this history.'”

Among these refugees, immortalized on the “Wall of Names”, we discover Rosa Koppelmann from Czernowitz, the addressee of the “Cry of Desperation from Siberia via Shanghai to Czernowitz”. Seven further names, potentially all related to Rosa, were listed under the same address in Shanghai, i. e. Zang Yang Lu Rd., former Ward Rd.:

HERBERT KOPPELKOWSKI • RUTH KOPPELKOWSKI • JULIUSZ KOPPELMAN • RICHARD KOPPELMANN • MAX KOPPLOWITZ • SIMON KOPSKI • MAX KOPSTEIN

“Jewish Life in Radautz Before, During and After the Holocaust” Cont’d!

ADDITIONAL LINKS

Book of the Month, 10/2017: Lost Childhood • Verlorene Kindheit • Copilărie pierdută
Ehpes Blog, 07/2017: Jewish Life in Radautz Before, During and After the Holocaust
Suceava News, 24-Jun-2018: Întâlnire cu o supraviețuitoare a Holocaustului

Czernowitzer Deutsch

Original text by Emanuel Hacken, edited by Ruth Glasberg Gold

Dear Czernowitzians and all List members,

A brief introduction to the following  subject of „Das Czernowitzer Deutsch.’ 
By sheer serendipity I stumbled upon a rare treasure. A few yellowed and typewriter-written pages with lots of crossed out sentences and words, as well as handwritten additions.

These pages were given to me by Dr. Hacken(deceased) during an international gathering of Czernowitzians in Miami in the  winter of 1990.
Thinking that it might be of  interest to our members, I took it upon myself to retype the text into a clean version and share it with you.
I hope you will enjoy and laugh a little.

 

CzernowitzerDeutsch-2

The Keeping of Metrical Books in Bukovina

Ostjüdische Zeitung, Czernowitz, December 29, 1929

The Keeping of the Metrical Books is Transferred to the Municipality. The City Hall issues a public note to the effect that both the keeping of the metrical books definitively is transferred to the municipality and the civil marriage becomes mandatory, effective January 1, 1930. In accordance with the stipulations of the law on the keeping of the metrical books, all births and deaths have to be declared to no person other than the keeper of the metrical books appointed by the municipality. Equally all marriages have to be contracted by the marriage registrar of the municipality. No religious act (circumcision, burial, marriage) will be carried out without agreement of the keeper of the metrical books.

Dr. Gali Tibon, Romania and the Holocaust



Gali Tibon is the founder and CEO of the Institute for excellence in the Humanities and the head of the educational board of the ‘Beit Lohamei Haghetaot’ Ghetto Fighters’ House Museum. From 2014–2015 she was a Postdoctoral Fellow, Sawyer Seminar Postdoctoral Fellowship, at Carnegie Mellon University, Department of History. Her Ph.D. dissertation: ‘The Jewish Leadership of the South Bukovina Communities in the Ghettos in the Mogilev Region in Transnistria, and its Dealings with the Romanian Regime (1941–1944)’ was completed at Tel Aviv University. She has completed an annotated edit of a diary from the Shargorod Ghetto in Transnistria. Tibon is a former high school principal in Bat – Yam and Ma’alot – Tarshicha and won the education prize of The ORT schools net for an outstanding school and its principal, lectures for principals, teachers and administrators from all sectors of Israeli society.

Gali Tibon is among the alumni of the “The Zvi Yavetz School of Historical Studies”. The School of Historical Studies is the center for academic activity in all fields of historical research at Tel Aviv University, and a leading institution for research in Israel and abroad.

ibidem: From summer 1941 onwards, Romania actively pursued at its own initiative the mass killing of Jews in the territories it controlled. 1941 saw 13,000 Jewish residents of the Romanian city of Ia‚i killed, the extermination of thousands of Jews in Northern Bukovina and Bessarabia by Romanian armed forces and local people, large-scale deportations of Jews to the camps and ghettos of Transnistria, and massacres in and around Odessa. Overall, more than 300,000 Jews of Romanian and Soviet or Ukrainian origin were murdered in Romanian- controlled territories during the Second World War. In this volume, a number of renowned experts shed light on the events, the contexts, and the aftermath of this under-researched and lesser-known dimension of the Holocaust. 75 years on, this book gives much-needed impetus to research on the Holocaust in Romania and Romanian-controlled territories [Table of Contents].

Women and World War II

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Rolle einiger Frauen bei der Rettung von Juden in Rumanien 1941-1945

HAUSLEITNER, Mariana

Abstract

Only a few historians in Romania who did research on the protectors of Jews, highlighted those protectors who were being honored in Yad Vashem. Especially the role of two women became somewhat better known. Viorica Agarici of the Romanian Red Cross got involved in the process of saving several Jews in 1941. The other woman who protested in 1942, when the Germans announced that Jews from Romania were to be deported to the camp Bełżec, was the mother of a young king Mihai called Elena.
To this date, no research has been conducted on the Romanian and Jewish women who got involved in the saving of over 5.000 orphaned children from the Romanian occupation territory Transnistria. Some publications informed about the autonomous Help-Commission at the Jewish Center. The article shows how a group of Jewish women collected garments and medication for the deported Jews from Romania in the camps of Transnistria. They closely cooperated with some Romanian women who distributed these goods through the channels of the Romanian Red Cross. After a long struggle in the spring of 1944, the first orphaned children were repatriated to Romania and were later brought to Palestine by ship in 1944/1945.

Documentary by Oana Giurgiu: Aliyah Dada

▶︎Full movie, uncut and in English◀︎

Libra Film: Following 130 years of the emigration of Romanian Jews towards the Holy Land, both history of East Europe and Israel will be revealed, in a light, colourful film depicting history in human stories and collages, as a tribute to Tristan Tzara – born in the same town from where first Jews emigrated to Palestine in 1882.

In the same time we will discover all absurdities and contradictions in the relationship between Romanians and Jews: Romanians were responsible for some of the cruelest pogroms during the Second World War, but still Romania had the largest Jewish surviving population at the end of the war, after USSR. Communist regimes were trading this population with Israel, and Ceausescu made even a step forward requesting cash payment per person, but same Ceausescu was the one convincing Egypt to sign the peace with Israel.

In Israel, the population from Romania became the country’s fourth largest group, but they always stayed in the shadow, sometimes hiding their origins, even though important personalities emerged from that community, even though they have brought important elements to their new country; the Israeli anthem and national dance “hora” are both inspired of the Romanian folklore, to mention just that.

Today, a return to democracy in Romania has attracted many Israeli investors, almost the same number as the former Jewish community that is slowly vanishing. In Israel, a museum of Romanian Jewry will be built, in the first settlement made by them in Rosh Pina. But will their memory be carried on by the new generations?