Category Archives: History

The Keeping of Metrical Books in Bukovina

Ostjüdische Zeitung, Czernowitz, December 29, 1929

The Keeping of the Metrical Books is Transferred to the Municipality. The City Hall issues a public note to the effect that both the keeping of the metrical books definitively is transferred to the municipality and the civil marriage becomes mandatory, effective January 1, 1930. In accordance with the stipulations of the law on the keeping of the metrical books, all births and deaths have to be declared to no person other than the keeper of the metrical books appointed by the municipality. Equally all marriages have to be contracted by the marriage registrar of the municipality. No religious act (circumcision, burial, marriage) will be carried out without agreement of the keeper of the metrical books.

Dr. Gali Tibon, Romania and the Holocaust



Gali Tibon is the founder and CEO of the Institute for excellence in the Humanities and the head of the educational board of the ‘Beit Lohamei Haghetaot’ Ghetto Fighters’ House Museum. From 2014–2015 she was a Postdoctoral Fellow, Sawyer Seminar Postdoctoral Fellowship, at Carnegie Mellon University, Department of History. Her Ph.D. dissertation: ‘The Jewish Leadership of the South Bukovina Communities in the Ghettos in the Mogilev Region in Transnistria, and its Dealings with the Romanian Regime (1941–1944)’ was completed at Tel Aviv University. She has completed an annotated edit of a diary from the Shargorod Ghetto in Transnistria. Tibon is a former high school principal in Bat – Yam and Ma’alot – Tarshicha and won the education prize of The ORT schools net for an outstanding school and its principal, lectures for principals, teachers and administrators from all sectors of Israeli society.

Gali Tibon is among the alumni of the “The Zvi Yavetz School of Historical Studies”. The School of Historical Studies is the center for academic activity in all fields of historical research at Tel Aviv University, and a leading institution for research in Israel and abroad.

ibidem: From summer 1941 onwards, Romania actively pursued at its own initiative the mass killing of Jews in the territories it controlled. 1941 saw 13,000 Jewish residents of the Romanian city of Ia‚i killed, the extermination of thousands of Jews in Northern Bukovina and Bessarabia by Romanian armed forces and local people, large-scale deportations of Jews to the camps and ghettos of Transnistria, and massacres in and around Odessa. Overall, more than 300,000 Jews of Romanian and Soviet or Ukrainian origin were murdered in Romanian- controlled territories during the Second World War. In this volume, a number of renowned experts shed light on the events, the contexts, and the aftermath of this under-researched and lesser-known dimension of the Holocaust. 75 years on, this book gives much-needed impetus to research on the Holocaust in Romania and Romanian-controlled territories [Table of Contents].

Women and World War II

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Rolle einiger Frauen bei der Rettung von Juden in Rumanien 1941-1945

HAUSLEITNER, Mariana

Abstract

Only a few historians in Romania who did research on the protectors of Jews, highlighted those protectors who were being honored in Yad Vashem. Especially the role of two women became somewhat better known. Viorica Agarici of the Romanian Red Cross got involved in the process of saving several Jews in 1941. The other woman who protested in 1942, when the Germans announced that Jews from Romania were to be deported to the camp Bełżec, was the mother of a young king Mihai called Elena.
To this date, no research has been conducted on the Romanian and Jewish women who got involved in the saving of over 5.000 orphaned children from the Romanian occupation territory Transnistria. Some publications informed about the autonomous Help-Commission at the Jewish Center. The article shows how a group of Jewish women collected garments and medication for the deported Jews from Romania in the camps of Transnistria. They closely cooperated with some Romanian women who distributed these goods through the channels of the Romanian Red Cross. After a long struggle in the spring of 1944, the first orphaned children were repatriated to Romania and were later brought to Palestine by ship in 1944/1945.

Documentary by Oana Giurgiu: Aliyah Dada

▶︎Full movie, uncut and in English◀︎

Libra Film: Following 130 years of the emigration of Romanian Jews towards the Holy Land, both history of East Europe and Israel will be revealed, in a light, colourful film depicting history in human stories and collages, as a tribute to Tristan Tzara – born in the same town from where first Jews emigrated to Palestine in 1882.

In the same time we will discover all absurdities and contradictions in the relationship between Romanians and Jews: Romanians were responsible for some of the cruelest pogroms during the Second World War, but still Romania had the largest Jewish surviving population at the end of the war, after USSR. Communist regimes were trading this population with Israel, and Ceausescu made even a step forward requesting cash payment per person, but same Ceausescu was the one convincing Egypt to sign the peace with Israel.

In Israel, the population from Romania became the country’s fourth largest group, but they always stayed in the shadow, sometimes hiding their origins, even though important personalities emerged from that community, even though they have brought important elements to their new country; the Israeli anthem and national dance “hora” are both inspired of the Romanian folklore, to mention just that.

Today, a return to democracy in Romania has attracted many Israeli investors, almost the same number as the former Jewish community that is slowly vanishing. In Israel, a museum of Romanian Jewry will be built, in the first settlement made by them in Rosh Pina. But will their memory be carried on by the new generations?

Documentary by Radu Gabrea: Jews for Sale

  ▶︎Full movie, Hebrew subtitled!◀︎

ASTRA FILM Director’s / Curator’s Statement:
The film approaches an unusual subject – “the largest citizen sale operation ever employed by a European state”. In 1974, a Romanian passenger carrying a diplomatic passport boarded from the Zürich airport with the destination Bucharest. Upon arrival in Bucharest, he noticed that one of his suitcases was missing. It was a suitcase handed over by an old acquaintance shortly before his departure. The diplomat was General M., a commander in the General Office of Foreign Intelligence, the Securitate’s espionage division. The suitcase contained one million dollars designed to facilitate the emigration to Israel for a certain number of Jews. This is just one episode in the history of the human trafficking operations organized by the Romanian communist state: the sale of Jew Romanian citizens to Israel.

Jewish Women in Music and Dance

Editorial Notice: http://www.hartung-gorre.de/Brenner_VI.htm
Amazon: https://goo.gl/D5gg8p

Excerpt from the preface by Rita Calabrese: “[…] Dieser Band VI und hoffentlich nicht letzter ist der Musik und dem Tanz gewidmet. Nicht nur Stars wie Barbra Streisand, Amy Winehouse und Bette Midler sind zusammen mit Sängerinnen aus vielen Zeiten zu finden, sondern auch Pianistinnen und Violinistinnen zusammen mit Komponistinnen, die in Fanny Mendelssohn ihre Vorläuferin hatten, sowie auch Dirigentinnen. Auffallend ist die lange Liste der Künstlerinnen, die ein tragisches Ende in Auschwitz-Birkenau und anderen KZs gefunden haben, darunter die Pianistinnen Mathilde Borgenicht und Leopoldine Oppenheimer, die Violinistin Alma Rose, die Nichte Gustav Mahlers. Andere hingegen haben dank der Musik überleben können, wie Esther Bejarano und Fania Fenelon, die über das Orchester in Auschwitz geschrieben haben, Yvette Assaeler, Grete Klingsberg, Rachel Knobler und andere. Zu erwähnen ist auch Lin Jaldati, die während der Deportation Anne Frank kennengelernt hatte. Als eine der ersten hat sie die jiddische Musik in der DDR bekannt gemacht. Noch etwas zu diesem wertvollen Werk muss man hervorheben, und zwar die verdienstvolle Verfasserin. Geboren im k.u.k. Czernowitz, das später rumänisch wurde und längst zur Ukraine gehört, ist Hedwig Brenner über politische, geschichtliche und sprachliche Grenzen nach Israel gekommen, wohin sie das kostbare Erbe der deutschsprachigen jüdischen Kultur mitgenommen und einen neuen Anfang als Schriftstellerin gewagt hat.Im Hebräischen heißt Leben Chajim und ist Plural. Wie kaum eine andere zeigt Hedi Brenner die Vielfalt und Unschätzbarkeit der menschlichen Existenz, und dafür danken wir.”

Hedwig Brenner in April 2014